Revolution in South Asia

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Urgent from Ka Frank: Indian State vs. The People of Lalgarh

Posted by Mike E on June 18, 2009

People in Lalgarh burn offices of hated officials

People in Lalgarh burn offices of hated officials

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Note from Ka Frank:

The Indian state is mobilizing its forces to crush the just struggle of the tribal people of Lalgarh, West Bengal. In the last 24 hours, West Bengal’s state police and 11 companies of Central paramilitary forces have started to move towards Lalgarh.

In November 2008, the tribal people (adivasis) of Lalgarh rose up against decades of abuse by the police and goons of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), the ruling party in West Bengal. This is the same phoney “communist” party that has tried to give away peasants’ lands in Nandigram and Singur, only to be beaten back and exposed by determined struggle.

In recent years, thousands of adivasis in the Lalgarh area have been imprisoned on false charges of having ties with the Maoist insurgency. They formed the People’s Committee against Police Atrocities, which has extended its influence to 1,100 villages in the region. Led by the People’s Committee, the adivasis have driven the police and CPM cadre out of the area, burning down police camps and digging up roads to prevent the state authorities from re-entering. Activists of the Communist Party of India (Maoist) have played a leading role in the People’s Committee and in extending the struggle into new areas.

jhargram_west_bengal_india-map2This is a critical battle for the Indian people and for people around the world. Our voices must be raised against the preparations of the West Bengal state and the central government to drown the struggle in blood.

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The following are from the Times of India:

Security forces begin ops to free Lalgarh from Maoists

18 Jun 2009 — Security forces have moved into the restive Lalgarh region to end the three-day siege of Maoists, who have gone on a rampage targeting CPI(M) cadres and leaders, destroying their homes and party offices and setting up barricades to block police entry.

Fifty villages in and around Lalgarh in West Midnapore district have been captured and declared a ‘free zone’ by Maoists.

Setting up their base camps around Lalgarh, central forces along with state police began closing in on Lalgarh early on Thursday morning. Four to five base camps at strategic locations have been set up with the objective not to concede any more areas to the Maoists. Maoists have formed a three-tier human shield with women and children in the vanguard, men behind them and armed naxals forming the rearguard, according to a senior police officer. Sources say the forces want to minimize casualties and will thus move slowly.

jhargram_west_bengal_india-map“Operation at Lalgarh has started this morning. The operation will be mainly done by the state police but we will be adequately assisted by the Central forces,” West Bengal DGP Sujit Kumar Sarkar said.

Asked about the number of forces deployed, Sarkar said the details “cannot be divulged right now”.

“But there are adequate (state) forces to restore peace and normalcy in the area. The CRPF will give adequate back up and if needed, they will actively participate,” he said over phone from Kolkata.

Agitating tribals of West Midnapore and adjoining areas have been protesting police “atrocities” on them in the wake of the landmine blast at Salboni which was believed to target the Chief Minister.

The tribals, numbering 2000 under the banner of People’s Committee Against Police Atrocities, dug up roads amid reports that they were laying landmines to stop the security forces.

“We will try to shed minimum blood,” Sarkar said adding I cannot tell you the exact timeframe (of the operation).”

Five hundred CRPF personnel, including 200 personnel of the elite COBRA trained in anti-Maoist operations, have been deployed to deal with the situation.

Conceding to pressure from the Centre, the state government had ordered the police to lead the operation with assistance from the central forces.

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‘Our aim is to break CPM shackles’

18 Jun 2009, 0307 hrs IST, Sukumar Mahato, TNN

People burning CPIM offices in Lalgarh uprising

People burning CPIM offices in Lalgarh uprising

He is leading the Lalgarh offensive in West Midnapore district of West Bengal. Around 24 years old, he is a veteran in Maoist ranks, serving as zonal committee secretary of Communist Party of India (Maoist) for West Midnapore, Bankura and Purulia districts. Sukumar Mahato speaks to firebrand Maoist Bikash about his party’s plans:

What are your immediate plans?

Our aim is to break the shackles that the ruling CPM has put on the people of this area. For nearly two decades, the people have not reaped the so-called benefits of parliamentary democracy. Gradually, everything began to be controlled by CPM. Its leaders even had a say in marriages and other social and personal matters.

There are many leaders against whom FIRs are pending. The police have taken no action against them. We will punish them. Those who have spent money or used political connections to avoid justice will be tried by people’s courts.

The government is preparing to strike in a major way. How will you counter this?

We have seen media reports in which government officials have spoken about bringing in Central forces, COBRA or Greyhound personnel. We are prepared for any strike. PCPA is with us. In Purulia, Bankura and West Midnapore districts, we have set up gram committees in over 250 villages. We shall ultimately liberate Keshpur and Garbeta. The state cannot stop us by using force.

Why have you resorted to violence?

We were forced into taking up arms by the administration. When we had guns pointing at us, one can’t expect us to respond with flower petals. Violence was started by CPM. We took up arms to counter this. Many of them are educated unemployed youths. Family members of CPM leaders have got jobs that were meant for them.

Why do you target the police? Many of the constables belong to poor families.

We have appealed to the police a number of times, not to blindly follow the diktats of CPM. We have asked the police not to torture poor villagers. There are some who heeded our appeal. Those who we targeted worked at the behest of CPM and paid a price.

What is your ultimate goal?

We want public funds to be used by the people’s committee. They will be accountable for all development work done. We have already done a lot of development work in the villages. CPM talks a lot about land reforms. Anuj Pandey and his two brothers owned 40 bighas of land. We shall distribute such land among the poor.

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Lalgarh in West Bengal Tense, as Tribals take control of the Area

Protests in Kolkata against police excesses in Lalgarh

Protests in Kolkata against police excesses in Lalgarh

Kolkata: The agitating tribals in Lalgarh in West Bengal continued to lay siege in the area and prevented the entry of police and para-military personnel. The CRPF personnel were not allowed to enter the area by over 2,000 angry tribals, who were protesting under the banner of People’s Committee Against Police Atrocities (PCAPA). The situation continued to be tense and volcanic in Lalgarh and Salboni in West Midnapore district.

The tribals are protesting against the alleged police atrocities on them after a landmine blast in Salboni in November 2008, which was targeted at Chief Minister Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee and two former Union Ministers Ramvilas Paswan and Jitin Prasada.

The West Bengal government has urged the Centre to dispatch five more companies of CRPF to deal with the volcanic situation and recapture Lalgarh. A massive operation could be launched anytime to bring the area under government control.

The tribals backed by the Maoists, have launched an attack on top CPM leaders, forcing them to flee the area. At least 2,000 CPM workers have reportedly fled the area.

Even the police had to wind up their camps in Lalgarh, surrendering before the tribal agitation. A local CPM leader and two party supporters were killed by the Maoists on Wednesday in Bankasole near Lalgarh.

Law and order situation: Bengal now comes under Central attack
18 Jun 2009, 0124 hrs IST, TNN

NEW DELHI: Just when its cadre are on the run in West Bengal with resurgent Maoists and Trinamool Congress having turned the table on them in
Lalgarh and Khejuri, CPM on Wednesday came under attack also from the Centre for not doing enough to tackle the deteriorating law and order situation.

In a strong riposte to the charge levelled by CPM’s Sitaram Yechury that Centre was not helpful, home ministser P Chidambaram said that the state government ought to first deploy its forces to deal with the situation. “We (central forces) are there to assist the state police. The state police must commit its own forces. I don’t know how many men they have committed in the area and what instructions they have been given. But in my talks with the chief minister, I told him that in our view the state police must be given a clear mandate and clear instructions,” suggesting that the Marxist government is reluctant to take on the Maoist challenge.

Yechury had blamed the Centre for allowing the situation to worsen. He alleged that Maoists’ move to acquire arms to achieve area domination was known to intelligence agencies.

Even though Yechury also appealed for co-ordiantion between the Centre and the state, the Maoist takeover of Lalgarh was unlikely to result in a consensus over how to deal with the threat. The fighting came a day ahead of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s meeting with CM Buddhadeb Bhattacharya. They are said to have a rapport, and on Wednesday the Prime Minister repeated his formulation about naxalites being the chief internal security threat. But whether the personal equation of the two leaders will help bridge the divide remained unclear because of the escalating conflict. The Prime Minister must have to reckon with his ally, Mamata Banerjee, an implacable foe of Marxists.

The Trinamool chief will be averse to the idea of organising relief for the Marxists and may get support from Congressmen in West Bengal. On Wednesday, the Left versus the Rest divide aggravated with an unsentimental Congress launching a full-scale assault on Marxists who find themselves beleaguered in their own bastion.

Congress spokesperson Manish Tiwari called the Maoist violence a backlash against 32 years of cadre raj enforced by Marxists. “When you sow the wind you can only reap the whirlwind,” he said.

He also echoed Chidambaram’s charge of inaction against Marxists. “The Marxist regime cannot abdicate its responsibility; if it cannot run the government it should step down,” said Tiwari while contending that the “cadre raj” was marked by excesses.

Caught in a pincer attack when their political fortunes appear to ebb, the Marxists were reversing their known positions, such as those on Centre’s jurisdiction with regard to law and order which under the Constitution has been recognised as a responsibility of state governments. Marxists have not zealously supported this division of labour, but have been instrumental in fashioning the intellectual argument for limiting the role of the Centre on `law and order’. They have not been enamoured of central forces or intelligence agencies either.

On Wednesday, however, Yechury pushed for greater involvement of the Centre. “Centre and state should coordinate to get rid of the menace.” He also recalled the Prime Minister’s description of naxalites as the biggest threat.

13 Responses to “Urgent from Ka Frank: Indian State vs. The People of Lalgarh”

  1. srinivas said

    Its foolishness on the part of Maoists to do Mamata’s bidding. It is well known that she is a rabid anti-communist and to fight CPM she has ganged up with die-hard anti-communists including BJP. She did not vote against the Indo-US nuclear agreement and now is supporting Manmohan Singh who has described Maoists as the virus affecting the country and whose party has virtually eliminated them from AP with the help of “encounters”.

  2. sri said

    Come on naxal geniuses, cleanse W.Bengal of CPM cadres so that Congress & Trinamool Congress will have a free run and they can mop you up in “encounters” a la AP style.

  3. Harsh Thakor said

    In Commemoration of 25th Martyrdom Anniversary of Comrade Krishan Singh,Secretary of the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Samiti. who was assasinated on 17th June 1984.The first martyr of the revolutionary peasant movement was comrade Krishna Singh in 1984.This beloved comrade came from the ranks of the poor peasantry. He failed to complete his school education and took up a job as a casual labourer in Calcutta in a jute mill.On returning to Bihar he worked as a bus conductor in the State transport co-operation. At the call of Naxalbari he became actively involved in the peasant struggle in Aurangabad.He also organised the workers of Japla Cement factory when he was arrested. On being released he began to organise the peasantry and became the secretary of the M.K.S.S on June 17th 1984 while conducting a meeting at Jharha in Palamau district he was attacked by a landlord. At first the peasants stood up but the landlord re-appeared with a bunch of goondas and forced the peasants to flee.Showing great tenacity Krishna Singh continued to speak but tragically was gunned down. This comrade was a flower that bloomed as later several peasant activists were to lay down their lives for the cause of emancipation. The commemoration meeting held for this comrade was one of the most emotional ever seen in Bihar C.P.I.(M.L) Unity Organisation and Movement of the Mazdoor Kisan Sangram Samiti Introduction .In 1977 cadres were released from jail in Jehenabad district-a historic venue of the revoluti nary peasant movement in Bihar. Cadres of the CPI (ML) from Jehanabad-Palamau region fought against the disruptionist and revisionist line put forward by Satyanarayan Singh in 1971. Also while struggling against the left line of the Bhojpur comrades, they built some roots in the area. After the release of many comrades from jail in 1977, the movement picked up momentum and was re-organised. In the self �critical review the organization resolved to build mass movements and mass organizations and launched an ideological self �rectification campaign. They organised themselves into the CPI (ML) (Unity Organisation) in 1978.These cadres had come from the Satya Narayan Singh Ranks and opposed his analysis. In 1982 the Unity Organisation merged with a section of the COC, CPI (ML) to form the COC, CPI (ML) Party Unity.(It is the 25th anniversary year in 2007)Later he same organization merged with the C.P.IML.)Peoples War Group which in term merged with the Maoist Communist Centre to form he C.P.I.(Maoist).The most prominent role in the ormaton of theOrganisati was alyed by Comrade Parimal Sen,a crusader in he struggle for revolutionary liberation.It is just one yaer since he died so ghis compilation is a tribute to this valiant Comradfe.He first struggled in prison in the emergency days and after coming out laid the foundations for theoretical and practical struffles.He sowed the seeds of the UltimateParty Unity Group. . The Jehanabad-Palamau region is one of the backward regions of Bihar. In addition to cultivation, the peasants have to rely on the collection of forest produce for their subsistence. In this area the writ of the landlord lay unchallenged. The situation began to change with the entry of the Unity Organisation. Learning from their previous �left� errors special attention was paid to build a mass base for the activities of their armed squads. A peasant organisation was formed – The Mazdoor Kisan Sangram Samiti (MKSS). All old practices were questioned and landlords� authority challenged. Struggles for wage increase, against the social oppression of women and scheduled castes, and the biggest struggles arose over the auction of forest produce.. At the Party Congress held in 1987 the COC, CPI (ML) Party Unity outlined the following tasks : “We are tackling the steadily increasing armed onslaughts of the state, through mass resistance. But gradually the squads too will have to come forward to participate in this resistance. At the phase of confiscating all lands of the landlords and on the eve of building up the guerilla zone, the activities of the squads will be the main aspect of the people�s resistance against the armed attacks of the state.” In Bihar a huge peasant movement was the C.P.I.M.L Party Unity Group(Later merged into Peoples War group which finally merged into C.P.I.Maoist) through the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Samiti)A major movement was led in the Jehenabad and Palamau districts.Various forms of Struggle were adopted.. Credit must be given particularly to the M.K.S. where they led broad based peseant movements.). The C.P.I.M.L Party Unity(Now merged into C.P.I.Maoist ,earlier merged into C.P.I.M.L Peoples War) ,in my opinion played he biggest role in the mass movement. The 4 mass organisations of the group formed were the Bharat Naujavan Sabha which carried out youth struggles of historic Significance (It was a major achievement that open mass revolutionary agitations for democratic rights,against corruption,in solidarity with peasant struggles,against malpractices in jails and hospitals, were led);the Mazdooor Kisan Sangram Samiti, which developed a historic peasant revolutionary movement;the NariMukti Sanghrash Samiti, (Revolutionary Women�s Front) which built a big womens revolutionary Cultural Organisation;and the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad.(Ressurected form of the banned M.K.S.S.) Below I am submitting my compiled notes from a revolutionary Journal �Mukti Marg� and from reports of the P.U.D.R.The author recommends that earlier issues o the journal be obtained.The journal brilliantly reports he struggles of Bihar which portray the mass line-similar to the struggles before and when armed struggle was launched in China(Up to the early 1990�s)Later due to incorrect understanding of military line the mass movement suffered.The reports of peasant struggles are outstanding I the journal ,particulary those in Palamau and Jehenabad.I also recommend readse to raed he reports of he A.P.D.R in Wst Bengal whose excerpts are published in the E.P.W.). Peasant Movement and Poltical Struggles . The Jehanabad-Palamau region is one of the backward regions of Bihar. In addition to cultivation, the peasants have to rely on the collection of forest produce for their subsistence. In this area the writ of the landlord lay unchallenged. The situation began to change with the entry of the Unity Organisation. Learning from their previous �left� errors special attention was paid to build a mass base for the activities of their armed squads. A peasant organisation was formed – The Mazdoor Kisan Sangram Samiti (MKSS). All old practices were questioned and landlords� authority challenged. Struggles for wage increase, against the social oppression of women and scheduled castes, and the biggest struggles arose over the auction of forest produce.The incipient movement saw three of its young activists martyred on 10th August 1982. The landlords of Bhagwanpur village in Gaya district kidnaped Lakhan Manjhi (20 years), Sudeshi Manjhi (19) and Balkishore Manjhi (15) and killed them. Lakhan was an important member of the Party�s Red Squad. In May 1984 the Palamau-Aurangabad Regional Committee of the MKSS had held its conference and plans were being made for fresh attacks on the landlords . In June 1984 the movement faced a severe loss, when the popular secretary of the MKSS, Krishna Singh, was shot dead by landlords. In May 1984 the Palamau-Aurangabad Regional Committee of the MKSS had held its conference and plans were being made for fresh attacks on the landlords. The story of his life resmbled that of a mountaineer attempting to conquer the steepest of mountaisn, bearing every hazard. On June 17, Krishna Singh was conducting a meeting of the MKSS at Jharna in Palamau district. The local landlord and goondas attacked the meeting, opening fire. A chase began, Com. Krishna Singh allowed his comrades to get away, and fell to the enemy�s bullets. Condemnation of this murder spread in a spate of protests throughout the area. The protests led to the arrest of 35 of the hoodlums involved.Meanwhile. As the movement grew the party too put forward the perspective of building up a guerilla zone. In 1986 ,the Bihar State banned the Mazdoor Kisan Sangram Samiti, led by the Party Unity Group.This organisation had organised a strong revolutionary peasant movement ,particularly in areas of Central Bihar. The major areas were Jehanabad and Palamau districts..In 1986 a major massacre took place in Arwal in Jehanabad district. The leaders of the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Samiti were arrested,including it’s general secretary.Office bearers Arvind Kumar,Vijaykumar and Jeetram Singh were arrested.On March 24th,1986 the policearrested Jagdeo Sharma,an activist of he M.K S S.In retaliatn the peasants converged on the streets crying�Release Jagdeo Sharma.Hundreds of peasants surrounded he police van and pulled Comrade Sharma out of the grip of the police.In this heroic act of defiance Comrdae Siddhi Ram fell as amartyr.History repeated itself in Village Bhawardah of Panki Block in 1988(20th anniversary year of resistance) when a police party was engulfed by hundreds of women opposing the police raids o villages. Various struggles for partial demands and against landlord repression were led by the peasant organisation.A typical example was in Garwah district. Here the area was dominated by Rajput landlords and the people were subjected to barbaric opression.When they struggled they were trampled upon by the landlord’s Sunllight Sena who killed 4 people including a brother and 3 minor children. The people retaliated but only for the Sunlight Sena again attacking them and burning down Karui village displacing 200 families.After a long protracted struggle led by the peasant organization 6 of the Rajput landlords surrendered before the people.Under the leadership of the Parishad the displaced people captured some gair Marzua land near Karui village and a new village was called named after Shaheed Kunal .The landlord leaders got in touch with the reactionary leaders and attacked Shaheed Kunal Nagar in large numbers.,kidnapping 7 people and killing 7 people. Statewide protest took place all over the State. Another Struggle took place in 1992 in Akbarpur village.The Samiti had entered the area in 1987 taking up the issue of a dalit Tola being razed to the ground. After 2 Bhumihar landlords had been annihilated. The M.K.S.S helped the Dalit families rebuild their houses. Later the struggle for wages was also taken up. Only after a protracted struggle did the peasants win the struggle for minimum wages. In 1992 the struggle for land began. Crop Seizure programmes were taken up and peasants were organised not to work in the houses and fields of the reactionary families. A strong economic blockade was launched. The landlords attempted to bring their ploughs and bullocks in large numbers but their attempts were thwarted by the people. The village people seized the ploughs and bullocks. In 1993 the peasant organisation led a heroic struggle in the Palamau-Garwah region. On 25th May 1993 the peasants burnt the palatial house of Budhinarayan Sah’s,a notorious landlord who owned 1700 acres of land and who used to tie rebellious peasants to huge anthills of red ants. For over 4 years the people in the area had waged a struggle ransacking his house and seizing arms. 7,000 acres of land which he had criminally seized was re-captured by the peasants and the notorious class enemy was forced to flee the village. This was remarkale as the Mazdur Kisan Sangrami SAmiti was banned organization and now functioning in a ressurected form. Similarly land struggles took place in other districts of Bihar like Jehanabad,Gaya, Patna,Khagaria,Begusurai,Buxar ,Rohtas,Bhabhua and Aurangabad districts.Struggles were also carried for people’s authority.People’s courts were set up to punish guilty offenders.In Palamau 400 women set up a Jan Panchayat trying a criminal by the name of Tetar Baiga guilty of raping several women.He was sentenced to death and beaten up in public.Similarly, a landlord Jay Narayan Singh of Pariyari village in Karpi block was meted out punishment in Jehanabad district who had illegally seized land.In Rohtas district too significat struggles were held.Meetings were held mobilising 100’s of peasants. A meeting of particular significance was held on 7th January. On 8th December 3 peasants had killed a criminal landlord element. The police used this as a pretext to repress the masses and went around villages exposing the peasants and trumping up criminal charges against them. They razed 35 houses to the ground and extorted money from the people. The fact that that elements had illegally grabbed gairmajura land was hidden.The Jan Sangram Samiti in Rohtas held a meeting exposing this. A massive protest programme was heldagainst this injustice. In 1991 in Parasona,in Jehanabad,,22 acres of gair mazarualand controlled by a single landowner from Shaguni was captured under the leadership of the Mazdoor Kisan Mukti Manch(resurrected form of the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Samiti) and paddy as sown.At the time of the harvest the landlord�s henchman attacked the village fired at the villagers and harvested the crop.The villagers boycotted the land for 2 years ,at the end of which the land was sold to Sudhir Kumar ,a middle-peasant owner Lodhipur. The Mazdoor Kisan Mukti Manch also captured 1000 acres of land created by the shifting of the river bed of Son in Jalpura Vilage in Patna.The M.K.M.M,in addition to struggles for fair wages ,took up issues directly connected to the development of agriculture.It formed a struggle committee that took up the task of building the 9km dam across the Tenar in Arwal block.Community labour from the surrounding villages was organized.. Struggles against Communalsim(opposing thedestroying of the Babri Masjid)-Copiled from Mukti Marg May-June1993 issue After the destruction of the Babri Masjid on December 6th 1992 by the Kar Sevaks the Bharat Naujavan Sabha launched a massive anti-communal campaign all through the State.In Daltonganj The youth front launched a cycle rally in protest.Bajrang Dal goondas tried to intimidate the activists but the youth carried out heroic self-defence and drove away the reactionaries.In Jehanabad the Mazdoor Kisan Mukti Manch carried out an anti -communal cycle rally covering a distance of 125 Km.covering more than 15 blocks from 1st February to 15th February..In Gaya the Bharat Naujavan Sabha launched cultural programmes against the communal holocaust.A similar programme took place carried out by the Bharat Naujavan Sabha and other progressive organisations in Bokaro.These programmes were significant in regard to the revolutionary democratic struggle against Communalism. Struggles for Trade Union Rights . A memorandum was presented to the Bihar govt..On the trade Union Front, the Bihar Mines democratic Workers Union on 18th May staged a public meeting, in which Japla Cement factory workers and neighbouring mine workers participated. A demand was placed asking for the re-starting of the closed Japla Factory and the Balliya quarry.Electricity,water,cleanliness,was also demanded.The Japla Cement factory as closed and thousands of workers who had made immense sacrifices lost their jobs. From 29 th September 1985 to 14th August 1990 it was closed.4000 workers died out of hunger.Workers made sacrifices of great proportions to have kept the factory running, denying themselves the govt.compensation of RS.13 crore. Later all over Jehanabad,there was a mass campaign condemning the murder. Programs commemorating martyrs-Compiled from Mukti Marg May-June 1993 and Mukti Marg 1992 Other frequent types of political programmes were commemoration meetings launched in memory of Martyrs in the revolutionary peasant movement. The most significant of these was the commemoration meeting of Comrade Krishna Singh who died in 1984.(report obtained fro Mukti Marg May-June 1993) This programme was conducted in his native village Badem in Jehanabad on 12th June.A huge rally comprising of 10,000 people took place. People came from 12 districts. Slogans were raised in memory of the beloved comrade and a flag was hoisted in his honour. This programme was presided by Dadachi Ray,the State Lok Sangram Morcha convenor. As well as his father Rajdev Singh.Earlier a public meeting was held adressed by Satish of Bharat Naujavan Sangh as well as Ranjit and Navlesh, Janmukti Parishad’s Rajdev Ram, Sachidanand Prabhat,office -bearer of the Jehanabad Gaya section of the Mazdoor Kisan Mukti Manch,Gupteshwar Singh and Arjun Prasad Singh of the Lok Sangram Morcha. And Kiran of the Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti.In Jehanabad jail too a commemoration meeting was held. Other significant martyrdom programmes were those commemorating martyrs Pankaj, Manju and Aditya . A rally was held in Palamau attended by 4,000 people on 22nd March 1992. It was conducted by Bharat Naujavan Sabha and Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti.This programme was adressed by Satish ,Chanchal and Sanju of Bharat Naujavan Sabha,Sachidanand Prabhat of the M.K.K.M.and Kiran of the Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti.The rally was lathi-charged by the police and a protest meeting was launched in Daltangaunj on 2nd April by Bharat Naujavan Sabha.On 22nd March protestors stopped the Palamau express. After this commemoration programmes were also held commemorating comrades Jagdish Paswan who was killed by activists of the Liberation group.Similarly programmes were held for comrades Rajdev Das and Mukhiya (Also killed by Liberation activists),martyrs in the peasant movement.(report from Mukti Marg July-Augus1992) In July 1993 Comrade Suresh Thakur was martyred at the hands of the Liberation Group.They went to his house and murdered him.On 11th March his martyrdom was commemorated in Bhojpur in Baruhi village.Dadichay Ray ,Sachidanand Prabhat and Amitabh.(Bharat Naujavan Sabha)adressed the gathering. On the day of heArwal massacre in commemoration in April 1993 a meeting was held by the Mazdur Kisan Mukti ManchAshok Sing addressed the gathering as well as Lok Sangram Morcha leader ,Sacidanad Prabhat:Kiran,activist of Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti:Bihar democratic mine workers Union activist Bhuvaneshwar Singh, attended by about 600 people . Other commemorative meetings were held for Comrades Jagdish Pasawn I Sidhpur (activist of M.K S S,martyred at the hands of Liberation goons),Comrdae Mukhiya in I Khirimud,.A meeting was held in memory of Comrades Pankaj,Manju and Aditya on 22nd March in 1993 in Daltonganj It had ahuge response A huge rally was held.(The previous yaer it had been commemorated by Jan Mukti Parishad)4000 people participated. Partial Struggles-Compiled from Mukti MargJul-Aug. 1992 issue In 1992 a major programme was launched by he Mazdur Kisan Mukti Manch on 30thMayin Gaya on he issue of building a pipeline.Ruling class partiesneglected all the demands of the peole likeLanad and watr.The Taylor Sangharsh Samiti was inspired by the M.K.M.M.One of the biggest ever rallies was launched with of red Flags raised in the air..People were organized with digging instruments.Lok Sangram Morcha played a major role under the leadership of Arjun Prasda Singh..Participating Organisations were the Mazdur Kisan Mukti Manch ,the Lok Sangra Morcha . The besieged policemen attempted to fire ,but were thwarted by he militant women. They snatched the us from the police and beat them up severely. In 1988 a front comprising of 7 revolutionary organisations was formed called the Lok Sangram Morcha which had it’s innaugural convention in 1988 in Rohtas district.In1989 it alsoorganised a massive convention against repression in Bihar.In 1989 the peasant organisation was ressurected in the name ok Mazdoor Kisan Mukti Manch.Earlier in 1988 the Bharat Naujavan Sabha had been formed to build a strong revolutionary youth movement.In 1990 a huge rallyw as joitly held bythe Lok Sangram Morcah aand the Jan Suraksha Manch(maSs front of M.C.C) From 17th March 1999 an event of tremendous political significance took place all over Bihar. This was the state-wide anti-repression campaign by the All -India People’s Resistance Forum. This organisation did wall -writing and postering all through the State. The Jharkhand areas like Ranchi,Palamau were covered well as Jehanabad, Buxar.Gaya, Bhagalpur and Banka districts. In Ranchi 200 people participated including a large number of intellectuals, journalists and activists associated with the Jharkhand movement. However in Daltonganj,another Jharkhand district 200 people attended but the response from intellectuals were poor. In Gaya 150 people attended while in Jehanabad the programme was banned. In Buxar 250 people assembled. In Khagaria 300 people attended and finally in Banka 100 people participared.. All the Speakers unequivocally condemned the nation-wide State Repression, highlighting the patronage given to the Ranbir Sena by the State in Bihar. Similarly the State Repression in Andhra Pradesh and Dandkaranya was condemned and the people were called upon to unitedly resist State Repression.This was the first time the All India People’s Resistance Forum carried out such a State-wide programme in Bihar covering the areas of Jharkhand ,North and Central Bihar.It had a positive influence on the people as never before in Bihar was such a State-wide campaign carried out against State Repression.The political Significance was that light was thrown on Repression in India as a whole.(From Peoles REsistane-oragn of A.I.P.R.F.) In December 1999 a huge protest was organised in Patna protesting against the encounter killing of 3 Central committee members of the People’s War Group in Andhra Pradesh..Another protest was held where all types of Revolutionary Democratic sections participated including the Democratic Lawyers asscosiation,. Here similar to the Laxmanpur-Bathe Revolutionary and democratic agitations Reference to journals like Mukti Marg.Peoples esistance EtcI n 1991 the Lok Sangram Morcha led a massive rally in Palamau district consisting of 10,000 people protesting against ‘Operation Agnidoot.’Arjun Singh,convenor of the Lok Sangram Morcha and Bharat Naujavan Sabha, Palamau convener Satish Kumar addressed the rally. In Palamau as a result of strong repression faced by the Sunlight Sena the democratic organisations protested through a protest rally. The state police attacked the protest. Thus 7 democratic organisations made a joint front. Here a protest was also launched against the arrest of democratic jounalistAmitabh Bagchi., as the arrests of 3 activists of the Jan Mukti Parishad and the killing of 3 M.C.C activists.On 27th December in Palamau Jan Mukti Parishad held a conference protesting against Devendra Nath Sahadev who carried out severe repression on coal workers.. The meeting was held at Brahani Bazar where comrades Satish Kumar of the Bharat Naujavan Sabha,Rajdev Ram of the Jan Mukti Parishad,Gurteshwar Singh of the Workers Struggle Front,and Mithlesh Singh of the Colliery Workers Union.This meeting had a significant impact on coal workers. Similarly in Jehanabad districts rallies and conventions were organised. They exposed the opression on the peasantry by landlord gangs like the Bhoomi Sena,the Lorrik Sena and the Brahmarshi Sena.They also condemned ‘Operation Rakshak‘, where great police repression took place on people from all walks of life.On 30th November 1990 a massive peasant gathering was organised adressed by Arvind Kumar,leader of the Mazdoor Kisan Mukti Manch,and Rajesh Kumar ,state convenor of the Bharat Naujavan Sabha,Bihar,Nandlal Pandit of the Lok Sangram Morcha and Arjun Prasad Singh State convenor of the Lok Sangram Morcha. All these speakers explained the peasants the need to form a strong agrarian revolutionary peasant movement and the need for the middle peasants to unite wth the landless. Democratic resolutions were passed at the meet demanding effective dams for irrigation as well for implementation of the land ceilings Act. There was no adequate protection to the peasants during both times of drought and floods, where work had only been done to protect the vested interests of the landlords. Demands were made for the State Government implementing adequate protection schemes against both types of disasters. It was demanded that a permanent dyke should be built on the Pun pun River in Motepur,a mor-bund should be built in Pymar river at Tedar,the Jamnai river should be cleaned and widened the Gaayghat dam of Barabar Pahad should be consolidated, the Chapadhat dyke of Jamnai should be cleaned,the Sone canal be modernised,the Gairjura land be distributed to the landless and that houses should be allotted to the needy, implementing the housing schemes. After the convention for one month a Padyatra was taken all over the districts culminating in a conference on 27th and 28th January.From 2nd March to 30th March, a massive rally was held, comprising of cycle rallies in different areas.On 19th April a convention was held in Arwal commemorating the massacre in 1986. The prograamme culminated in Gaya where a massive conference of landless and poor peasants took place.(Informatio fro Mukti Marg,Jan-Feb 1991) Another significant feature of the movement at that time was the jail struggles as well as struggles for democratic Rights ,particularly in Jehanabad and Palamau districts.A struggle was held in Jehanabad jail protesting against corruption of jail atrocities led by Sachidanand Prabhat.On 16th January a massive gathering was organised by the Lok Sangram Morcha and the Bharat Naujavan Sabha.A memorandum was presented to the jail authorities. In Daltonganj,in Palamau district the Bharat Naujavan Sabha led a protest against the arrest of activist Ramkeshwar Singh of the Janmukti Parishad. About 150 youth assembled and the gathering was adressed by Satish Kumar, Bharat Naujavan Sabha convenor,Bhuvaneshwar Prasad of the Lok Sangram Morcha and Vyavsayi Singh of the Slum dwellers commiteee.Later in Palamau 3 Bharat Naujavan Sabha activists were arrested against which Lok Sangram Morcha launched a massive protest.Here a demand was also launched against the banning on revolutionary organisations in the State. Later in 1993 a massive struggle was carried out in Daltonganj jail against malpractices. Political prisoners were denied the most basic rights. There was no proper food, water ,sleeping facilities, sanitation or medical attention. The jail administration was also hand in hand with corrupt contractors and politicians. The Indian People’s Front joined hands with the Lok Sangram Morcha and Bharat Naujavan Sabha on this issue. The political prisoners launched a hunger strike against the T.A.D.A.3 Prisoners were transferred to Gaya jail namely Jagdev Sharma,Yugal Pal,Vinod Vidrohiand Jagdev Sharma.Prisoners protested this including the transferred convicts..At the end of the protest a memorandum was given by the organisations.What was healthy that such struggles spread to other areas and did not display individual terrorist tendencies.9i Andhra Pradesh mass fronts like the R.S U and RYL.displayed strong tendenciesAfter the unjust death sentence on the 13 activists from the M.C.C who participated in the Dalechauk Baghaura massacre. The Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad launched a statewide protest campaigncovering Jehanabad, Gaya,Patna, Aurangabad, Daltangaunj, Gadhwa, Begususrai, and Bokaro districts. On 25th September a massive jam was carried out in Palamau.The campaign was carried out from 19th September to 25th September. On 18th May 1992 in Shankar ganj in Jehanbad district 2 activists of the Mazdur Kisan Sangrami Samiti were killed by the Bihar police.They were shot with their hands tied behind their backs. The Mazdur Kisan Mukti Manch launched a traffic jam on Arwal-Jehanbad road. On 25th May a protest was held outside the jails. On 2nd June a conference was held. Comprising of 1500 people. It was demanded that the guilty police were punished , the families of the victims compensated Rs ,50,000 each,all police camps withdrawn, all repression on democratic organizations banned. Police camps were deployed to thwart protest. On 5th June a major rally was helped at Golambar junction in Patna.To protest against Operation Agnidoot a military offensive ruthlessly used the T.A.D.A black law. Several democratic activists were arrested. On 13th July, in Palamau,,a protest as held by the Lok Sangram Morcha,.Democratic Organizations like the Indian Peoples Front(only cadres are revolutionary),Mazdur Kisan Sangharsh Vahini,Bihar Mines democratic Workers Union participated. In Dalatngaunj,Lok Sangram Morcha,Jan Sangram Manch,and M.K.S.S protested outside a jail. On 20th June revolutionary democratic Organizations launched a massive struggle against jail malpractices in Daltangaunj. For 3 days.700 people participated. The agitation continued till 17th July. Facilities for fan,latrines,food Etc were demanded.M.C.C,Jan Mukti Parishad,Lok Sangram Morcha,.Party Unity, and Jan Suraksha Manch participated.(Taken rom Mukti Marg-Jan-Feb 1991) In 1996 The Bharat Naujavan Sabha led a massive protest against malpractices and corruption of doctors in Daltonganj town of Palamau district. In Chainpur Bazar area Bharat Naujavan Sabha led a massive 500 people demonstration against inadequate facilities in government hospitals. The doctors hardly attended work. A memorandum was presented to the city administration against this. These organisations also participated in several campaigns against state and landlord Sena’s repression.(eg.The Laxmanpur-Bathe massacre carried out by the Ranbir Sena) On 24th November 1992 to 20th January1993 a major protest was launched against drought and corruption of state government bodies in Palamau. It was launched by people from, 300 villages, that too in a single day. From 50 villages the headman attended .In the final public meeting 5000 people attended. In Garwah district. In Palamau-Garwah a massive police force was deployed to curb the protest. Jan Mukti Parishad activists were arrested from Garwah,Daltangaunj,and Japla Etc. A massive stir was built up demanding justice,implementaion of correct policies towards drought,punishment to corrupt contractors Etching various villages. On 29th January in Shankar Vigraha village in Jehanabad 22 Dalits was massacred .In Palamau a protest meeting in solidarity was lathi-charged in Ranchi-Daltangaunj.Here people from 15 villages carried out a massive jam. During the lathii charge the head of J.M.K.S.P leader Ramjit Mahato was severely injured. On 8th February the M.K.S.P held a huge meeting Shankar Vigha village protesting the massacre in protest. The Jan Abhiyan Bihar(comprising of 12 democratic organizations) ,too participated .Against the massacres of the Ranbir Sena in Laxmanpur Bathe and Shankar bigha torchlight processions and cycle rallies were carried out on protest by the Bharat Naujavan Sabha and the D.S.U.In 1997 a meeting held in Jehanabad district commemorating the Russian Revolution was disrupted by the Police under the pretext of Section 144.This event took place on November 23d.Several activists were arrested. The police refused to give permission to give a public meeting. Ultimately after a strong protest a protest meeting of about 500 people was held. This meeting was adressed by Sachidanand Prabhat of the M.K.S.P,Sandeep of the D.S.U.,Sunita of the Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti and Arjun Prasad Singh of the A.I.P.R.F.The meeting was presid4ed by comrade Pappu of the M.K.S.P.Earlier they tear a meeting carried out to commemorate the Arwal massacre was disrupted and office-bearers of the revolutionary organizations were arrested.Sachidand Prabhat,the Jehanabad District M.K.S.P secretary was badly tortured and arrested. The previous day the police killed Comrade Pawan Nat during a firing on a torch light procession carried out by the Bharat Naujavan Sabha.In this period Palamau district also experienced massive dreprssion. The state office of the Bharat Naujavan Sabha was raided in 1997.To commemorate May Day Lok Sangram Morcha had planned to organise a public meeting commemorating the historic event on May 9th.The police blocked entry to all parts of Daltonganj town. During the meeting the police arrested 30 people including 3 Lok Sangram Morcha State committee members. On 27th April the meeting of the Harahan Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad organised at Lohar dagga on the issue of Kendu leaves was stopped by the police. On 22nd November 1998 a martyrs meeting commemorating Comrade Devlal Pal was lathi-charged by the police in Vishrampur village.Houses of peasant leaders were raided and several activists were illegally detained. Villager’s houses were razed to the ground. On 27th January 1999 a meeting of the Jharkhandi Kisan Sangrami Parishad was attacked in Panki village in Palamau.This meeting was held against Manatu,a notorious criminal .Several activists were arrested. Earlier the Jharkhand Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad carried out a struggle against a corrupt building development officer. A mass meeting was held mobilising 1500 people. A call was given to the masses to form a people’s court against the corrupt practices of the Building development officer A prominent feature of repression was that of the Ranvir Sena which carried out 2 major massacres in Laxmanpur Bathe and Shankar bigha in Jehanabad districts in 1998 and 1999 respectively. The State had connived with the criminal gangs to suppress the revolutionary peasant movement. Massive State-wide protests were held condemning the massacres where progressive anddemocratic sections of various trends participated. With the Revolutionaryorganisations of the Party Unity and Maoist Communist center, various communist revolutionary organisations representing various trends participated like the C.P.I.M.LRed Flag ,the C.P.I.M.L New Democracy, the C.P.I M.L Janashakti etc.In these rallies organisations supporting the J.P.movement participated like the Jan Mukti Sangharsh Vahini. The state wideprotests had tremendous significance in regard to the revolutionary democratic movement.What was significant that democratic organisations held a joint protest irrespective of the political trends they represented.In 1998 a Jan Abhiyan of 14 organisations was formed against State and Landlord repression. Massacre groups of all trends participated which has tremendous significance in the revolutionary democratic movementOn 3rd January 1993,the Jan Mukti Parishad captured a dacoit and 2 thieves. In Garwah district in Ataual Village2000 people staged a people�s court. All the looted items were rcovered.This lifted the initiative of the masses to wage a war against injustice and that it was possible to collectively punish and defeat reactionary elements .9Taken from Muti Marg (March 2000) In 1999 in Jehanbad district the Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti and the Bharat Naujavan Sabha carried out a campaign against corruption,malpractices,. It started from Jehanabad Railway station.JaiKishore of Bharat Naujavan Sabha and Sunita of Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti addressed the gathering. This was significant as in since the late 1990s it was impossible to carry out a democratic meeting in the district. In Begusrai,around the same time a massive campaign was held, against notorious landlords Vijay Singh,Anil Singh. When the M.K.S .P began to work in the region, the landlords tried to sell their lands ,which they had stolen from the peasants who were now landless. They got in contact with the police and hired lumpens to attack the hose of a poor peasant Ram Mahto.The M.K S.P activists protested this mobilized the peasants in ameeting.on 11th August a public meeting was held, comprising of 150people.Raja Ram of the D.S U sang a cultural song and the speakers wee Yogendra Pandit and Ram Mahto.After the meeting all the peasants with great resolve and determination went back. To their original place. (Report from Mukti Marg �July-August 1999) In 2000 with the co-peration of A.I.P.R,F forces the Jan Abhiyan �A mass democratic Front launched a massive campaign against corruption and goonda raj. Meetings were held in B.N college,PostalPark,MahenDra region.A convention was held in Patna college seminar hall.A rally was held .Organizatio s of various trends participated. unjust condition sin prisons. In 1999,took up a major campaign on issues of rape, murder and loot mobilizing 500 people in Banka-Bhagalpur.Revolutionary politics was explained . In Vaishali a campaign was launched in November 1999,commemorating the Russian revolution and protesting against the rise in diesel prices and bus fare hikes.Arjun Prasad Singh,Chandu Prasad and Shambu Ram, of the Bhagat Singh Club presided over the programme.In Khagaria the activists organised commitees for flood relief and organised several protests to ensure effective protection to the peasantry in the time of floods.To protect the interest of the landlord classes the government took no interest in the People’s welfare.The activists helped form people’s commitees in order to enhance protection against floods. At Malgodam Station in Khagaria town a public meeting was organised on the topic of ‘Floods.’The meeting was adressed by Gautam Mukherjee of the Bharat Naujavan Sabha, Sachidanand Prabhat of the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad,Sunita of the Nari Mukti Sangharsh committee and Sanyojak Shavi of the M.K.S.P and Anil of D.S.U.A memorandum of demands was given to the adminstration.Here it was demanded that adequate boat supply was given to protect people from this calamity and that effective dams should be built. More recent struggle led by the M.K S P in Khagaria and Bhagalpur districts defending fishing rights. In Khagaria the MK.S.P also led struggles protesting against the repression meted out by the Communist Party of India.The C.PI sided with the police in suppressing activists as well as used goondas to beat up the peasant activists. A meeting of 300 people was held. Later on similar grounds in Begusurai activists held a protest meeting consisting of 600 people .This meeting was adressed by Krishna Kant Singh. Later a small convention was held attended by 600 people explaining the nexus between the C.P.I and the State Police. In Begusurai the M.K.S.P carried out a land struggle against Retired magistrate Rajendra Singh and professor Vijay Singh who illegally seized land violating the land ceilings act.Under the leadership of the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad the peasants re-captured 200 acres of land. A mass meeting was held in December mobilising 500 people. Later on December 9th a mass meeting was held educating people to fight for their land rights and struggle under the banner of the Red Flag. A most significant event in Bihar’s Revolutionary politics was the merging of the Janvadi Mazdoor Kisan Samiti with the M.K.S.P in 1999..In Bhagalpurand Banka districts the J.M.K.S led a strong peasant movement. After their merging a major struggle was held to protect the peasants fishing rights in Banka.The people of Ulhi had waged several struggles for these rights. The first one was when the land was grabbed by Ram Mandal.The Second one was when Mukhia had grabbed their rights of fishing. The peasants had then decided that the catch made by the contractor must be distributed to all the people.This management functioned effectively till 1994. In 1994 the “Daak Sunder Tudu” was re-named and the goonda Subhash Yadav started fishing with the help of his gang in the peasant�s property. He did not share his catch with anybody else. However from 8th to 10th February there was a strong dual between the villagers and the gang of Subhash Yadav.The hooligan used bombs and lethal weapons to scare the villagers. The police Thana sided with the criminal under the pretext of col144.Subhash Yadav re-began fishing. On the 12th February 1999,the M K S P led a successful rally explaining the masses the event that took place. The peasant organisation organised the farm labour of Belhar and other surrounding areas and put up a protracted fight against Suresh Yadav and his gangs.600 people including women and children participated driving the culprits. Although the enemy was armed with guns and ammunition .The masses seized the enemy’s weapons. The peasants had won a victory. Suresh Yadav continued his antics but as an organised force the peasants consistently retaliated and defended the right to their livelihood. The class enemies continued to attempt to disunite the people, however the M.K.S.P thwarted their bid by continuously educating the peasantry. International Issues In 1991 protests were led by Bharat Naujavan Sabha and Lok Sangram Morcha against the U.S attacks on Iraq. A rally consisting of about 100 people was held in Daltonganj.In similar numbers rallies was held in Jehanabad. .On the author�s visit in October 2001 one of the greatest protests ever staged in the movement in Bihar took place against the American Govt�s decision to declare War after the September 11th Incident.8,000 peasant activist were mobilized particularly from Bhagalpur in protest .The author also met one Comrade of the Bharat Naujavan Sabha from Daltangonj district who reported a jail struggle led by the youth front for better facilities successfully. Revolutionary peasant struggles for land. Information compiled from Peop lesResistance 1995 issue-From the report on peasant struggles by the M.K S.P by Arjun Prasad Singh.Alos published in Mukti Marg issues from 1989-1993 Developments 1994 the peasant organisation was re-named the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad.In this year the Party Unity launched their student front the Democratic Students Union. In this year Bharat Naujavan Sabha had it’s innaugural State conference. Here Gautam Mukherjee was made the president.The conference was attended by 6,ooo people.Another event of Political ,significance during this period was the formation of the All-India People’s Resistance Forum which now functioned actively in Bihar. As the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad a strong revolutionary peasant movement existed but the Party Unity’s frontal organisation had to resort principally to underground functioning., particularly in Jehanabad and Palamau districts. Most of the open programmes were conducted by the All India Peoples Resistance Forum, Bharat Naujavan Sabha and the DemocraticStudents Union. The Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad led a martyr�s memorial meeting on August 15th in Panky in Palamau-Garwah district commemorating the martyrdom of comrades. This meeting was presided by Rajdev Ram of the M.K.S.P.All speakers condemned repression on the peasant movement. During this period the youth and Student organisations worked amongst the peasantry through carrying out ‘Go to Village Campaigns.’.. Jharkand Issue Compiled fro Mukti Marg Sept-Oct.1997 issue The other event of enormous political Significance was the movement for a separate Jharkhand. The revolutionary forces consistently supported this movement and various functions were presided over this issue. The prominent Jharkhand areas of the movement were Ranchi, Palamau and Bokaro.In 1987 the Jharkhand co-ordination committee was formed giving a political perspective to the movement. However due to the opportunist attitude of the leadership it ceased to function after having talks with the Central Government. The State Government played a trick forming the Jharkhand Autonomous Council winning over all the stalwarts of Jharkhand like Ram Dayal Munda,Sanjay Basu Mallik and other revolutionary ideologues. In a very difficult political situation the Jharkhand Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad and the Hul Jharkhand Kranti Dal planned to intervene. A joint seminar and rally was held mobilising people from all over Jharkhand in Ranchi.Here 3000 people assembled from Ranchi, Dhabi, Singh bum, Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Gumla, Lohargada, Palamau, Garhwa, Hazaribagh and other districts. In the convention Lewa Chand Tedu,the old and reknowned fighters of the Midnapur and Jharkhand struggles,participated. The chief guest of the meeting was Comrade Darshan Pal.He spoke on the need of co-ordinating the movement of Jharkhand and other nationalities with the ongoing democratic andrevolutionary movements of the Country.He also said that the attainment of the Statehood of Jharkhand would provide no solution to the basic problems of the people of Jharkhand,so people should fight for a new Jharkhand in a new federal democratic India. Later Arjun Prasad Singh spoke on the need of raising the political consciousness of the people of Jharkhand and Shambu Mahatoof the Hul Jharkhand Kranti Dal pointed the importance of targeting imperialism. As the main enemy.He recalled the glorious history of the Jharkhand movement. The following day a seminar was held analysing the polemical aspects of the Jharkhand struggle from a Marxist -Leninist point of view.This was presided by Shambu Mahato of the H.K.K.D and Shridhar of the J.M.K.S.P.In the post 1994 period the Mazdoor Sangrami Parishad did significant work in Khagaria and Begusurai districts and Banka districts. The Emergence of revolutionary student organisations was of greatsignificance in Bihar. Revolutionary Student Movement in Bihar. Information based o reports from revolutionarystudent journal �Kalam� and activists of Democratic Students Union.The 1996,1997,1998 and 1999 issues of Kalam have been referred to In 1994 the Party Unity section formed their first ever revolutionary student organisation in Bihar which was the Democratic Students Union.(The D.S.U.)This had its roots in the Bharat Naujavan Sabha formed in 1988.TheBharat Naujavan Sabha earlier fought for the students and youth collectively. For the first time a separate organizational structure was built for students. Several former Bharat Naujavan Sabha activists took up the responsibility of building D.S.U. The strategy of the Democratic Students Union was to organise students on their partial demands as well as connect their problems to the chief political issues of the day. The student movement had to be oriented towards the interests of the agrarian revolution. For achieving the task the Democratic Students Union took up the responsibility of organizing �Go to Village Campaigns�. Democratic Students Union also planned to fight against imperialism. as well as democratic issues. In the colleges the D.S.U fought against malpractices in Arts colleges as well as engineering colleges. In these institutions unqualified teachers and principals were appointed. Funds were misappropriated by managements. In the Patna Arts College the Principal even stole paintings.D.S.U organised agitations agains this.D.S.U D.S.U declared a lockout in the college not allowing principals and teachers to enter the college.Waris Hadi was made principal in 1994 as he had political links with the governor of Bihar.He sold paintings and illegally appointed several people irrespective of merit. including a lecturer who faced a murder charge. After a protracted student struggle the principal was removed. The president of the then students union was rusticated from the university due to complete collapse of administrative structure in the college. The college was not de-affiliated from the All India technical Services board which badly affected students. The D.S.U organised agitations against indifference and politicking in Patna University.70students sat on a dharna for 5 daysand a poster exhibition was organised.Programmes were taken jointly with A.I.S.F,the S.F.I and the A.I.D.S.O. fighting for student�s admissions.Dharnas were held against malpractices and corruption. Agitations were also launched against fee hikes. Such examples are in Daltonganj where the students had to clash with the C.P.R.F personnel. In Patna engineering college the students launched a 6 day hunger strike demanding the opening of a college which had been opened earlier.D.S.U gave soli darity to this issue and burnt an effigy of the education minister. In the Jharkand areas D.S.U led struggles for tribals in schools to be taught in their native languages.In these areas D.S.U launched agitations for tribal students who were denied the right to learn in their native languages. The D.S.U also fought for democratic rights issues.Very often D.S.U organise cycle rallies as a form of protest.The most significant agitations were against police firings in Madhubani and Darsinghsarai areas of Bihar.Here D.S.U joined hands with even the revisionist student organisations as well as the Chatra Sangharsh Yuva Vahini.This took place in 1995. The D.S.U also protested against the death sentence imposed on the 13 M.CC activists in 1992.Here the D.S.U joined hands with the Revolutionary Students League and the Progresive Students and Youth front.(The 2 other revolutionary student organisations) After the Laxmanpur-Bathe massacre carried out by the Ranbir Sena the D.S.U Along with the Bharat Naujavan Sangh organised protests throughout the state.In Daltonganj,Jehanabad,Gaya,Khagaria torchlight processions were launched.In conditions of severe repression protests were launched.D.S.U joined several revolutionary organizations this issue. In 1997 D.S.U protested against the killing of 6 Party Unity activists. In Patna they burned the effigy of the chief minister.D.S.U also held commemoration programmes of the Arwal massacre that took place in 1986.In 1996 a protest meeting was clamped upon by the police and revolutionary activists were arrested. Afer the killing of Comrade Chandrashekar ,a student of J.N.U IN Delhi D.S.U launched protest programmes along with other organisations.In Jehanabad with A.I.D.S.O protests were organised in the form of torchlight processions. In 1999,D.S.U with the Bharat Naujavan Sabha took out a cycle rally from Daltangaunj to Patna protesting against the Shankar bigha massacre. Earlier in Daltonganj an effigy of the chief minister was burnt. In March 2000 D.SU led a protest with other revolutionary organisations protesting the murder of 11 revolutionaries in Kachnewan.An effigy of the Bihar administration was burnt at Patna junction.D.S.U.also participated in the march to Kachnewan as well as on a protest demonstration on April 6th. From 1995 the D.S.U Organised�Go to Village Campaigns.� These have been conducted on district as well as state levels. Their were 3 types of campaigns launched. The first was on specific political issues. The second type was a general political campaign and the third type was launching cultural programmes.The purpose of these programmes was to integrate the students and youth with the peasantry. In the first campaign in Gumrah district 6 D.S.U activists were arrested campaigning for Beedi Patta workers.The activists were organising the Beedi Patta workers against the merciless contractors who did not pay them their daily wages. The next state-wide campaign took place in 1997 in Khagaria district which is a flood prone region.Here the D.SU formed flood relief distribution commitees and explained the peasants the political reasons for which the state could not give common people protection.The flood relief programmes of the government were found to be totally inadequate and the government gave a ready excuse that Nepal has let off water.Infact the real reason was that the landlords did not allow the construction of dams at sites which would have been appropriate because those sites were falling within their lands.Infact the dam mechanism in the state was create only with the purpose of preventing waterlogging and not for flood control. In addition the boatmen were not paid their wages for the relief work. At the end of the campaign the team held public meetings and dharma demanding an end to corruption and compensation for boatmen . In 1998 the D,S.U with the Bharat Naujavan Sabha visited areas in Buxar ,Palamau Santhal Paraganas and Khagaria districts.In Buxar sustained wall-writing was carried out by activists protesting against the landlords not paying minumum wages to agricultural workers.They were paid wages between Rs.15 to 30.Landlords here possessed 5,000 acres of land and religious Maths owned hundreds of acres.districts.In Santhal Parganas the D.S.U fought for the implementation of a separate Jharkhand State. In Palamau, a centre of the revolutionary peasant movement the D.S.U fought against the construction of a dam which submerged 14 villages.20 people had been killed in the flood the previous year and no compensation was awarded.In Khagaria activists again propagated the real reasons for adequate protection being given to people during floods. The wrong policies of the government were explained. This time �Bandh Sangharsh commitees were formed in villages which held several protest meetings againt corruption. The last state-wide campaign took place in the Bhagalpur and Bankadistricts.Here the activists gave solidarity to peasant�s struggles and propagated the politics of Naxalbari and agrarian revolution.. In May 2000 the D.S.U held its first state conference in Patna..Students came from all over the state the maximum number coming from Palamau and Jehanabad and Bhagalpur districts in the former 2 districts students faced severe repression on the way to the conference. In addition students came from Buxar,Gaya,Khagariadistricts etc.Before the State conference district conferences were held in Bhagalpur.Patna town and Palamau districts.Here district commitees were formed and the district activities were reviewed. At the State conference Comrade Amitabh was elected the President and Vijay ,the secretay.A 6 member committee consisting of Amitabh,Sachin,Sumit,Pankaj,Vijay and Jaiprakash were elected. Resolutions were passed opposing privatization and communalization of education, opposing the repression on revolutionary movements and supporting the rights of nationalities to self-determination. 2 State-wide workshops were also carried out by the Democratic Students Union. The first one was held in 1999 to discuss organizational functioning, the building of unitspolititicisation methods and finance. Here principally the appropriate forms of struggle were discussed. It was decided that educational institutions were neglected and a regular wall magazine should be brought out in addition to cultural programmes.It was also noted that regular commitees were not formed in several places In the 2nd workshop in February 2000 study classes were held on the history of the Communist movement in India, the State of Education, and dialectical materialism. Delegates attended from Gaya.Palamau ,Bhagalpur and Patna. One of the most significant things that occurred was the merger of the Progressive Students and Youth Front with the D.S.U.The former organisation had a strong mass base in Bhagalpur district leading powerful agitations against fee-hikes and corruption in Bhagalpur University. This organisation also held a massive programme for Tilka Majhi�s birthday to be observed in Bhagalpur university. Several times the organisation organised gheraoes against the vice-chancellor for hostel demands. After merging into D.S.U the organisation launched a massive demonstration against the administration in Bhagalpur university house -�arresting corrupt officials. The emergence of the Democratic Students Union has played a significant role in the revolutionary movement in Bihar. Innumerable sacrifices have been made by activists. The martyrdom of comrades Anil Ojha and Chanchal were particularly significant.Anil Ojha was killed as a result of police torture after organising a student agitation against malpractices of the principal in Patna Arts College.Chanchal played a great role in organising D.S.U units in Jehanabad districts as well as building the Bharat Naujavan Sabha.Eventually he was killed by his own relatives. However the movement has had several setbacks.As a result of severe repression by the state on the peasant movement the D.S.U has been unable to function openly in many areas of the State. The best examples are Palamau and Jehanabad.Here activists have often been arrested for carrying out open prograames.Even in Khagaria the D.SU which earlier had a unit has been unable to function. The only prominent areas of functioning are in Bhagalpur and Patna. Although activists have made heroic political sacrifices as a result of the powerful left-sectarian trend in the movement various weaknesses have occurred in the movement. More recent struggles Lawyers Movement Another significant development in the movement in Bihar was the formation of a Democratic Lawyers Organisation called the Radical Lawyers forum in Patna High Court. It pledged to give solidarity to the revolutionary peasant movement by fighting against the ban undemocratic organizations and for the release of wrongly convicted prisoners. They also appealed against for the termination of group clashes between the C.P.I.M.L(Peoples War Group)and the M.C C. The Lawyers who predominantly participated I the formation were Ved Prakash, VisheshwarRam,Medni Kant Jha,Umanath Mishraa,d B.S Upadhya.They pledged against fighting for the repeal of Black Laws, for the democratic rights for political prisoners in jail, for rights of women Etc.They condemned the false encounter in Rajaun Thana in Banka District. Such a Lawyers organization is important for the protection of democratic rights and some good work was done in court. Research on the Movement by Scholar Bela Bhatia Social activist and rsearch worker Bela Bhatia interviewed activists of the Mazdoor Kisan angram Samiti(M.K S S.).Below I am quoting an excerpt fro her interview. �Feudalismwill have to be rooted out steadily,otherwise it will uprootyou.It lies like a shadow to every person and untiolit is rooted out revolution canot be achieved. Before the organization came we did not have knowledge. The organization gave us education regarding the present system and he need to overthrow it.India is a semi-colonial and semi-feudal Country. There is foreign capital also in our country. We have o en this foreign capital an utilize the capital of our own country.T he downtrodden people have to rise above the system.Each individual should get education. We got books to read about Marx,Lenin and Mao From these we learnt that Mao was a revolutionary and so were Lenin and Mao Tse Tungse read alittele about all the 3.We have not read a lot but understood that what Marx and Lenin wanted to say was that this rotten system should be destroyed, the exploitation of one human being by another should end, human kin should be liberated from this. This is what the leaders have to say. Below I am publishing some testimonies of leading members of the M.K S.S on revolutionary violence. “Without arms we feel that we shall not be able to fight. With arms we feel confident ,we will have the power. We fell that we will be able to settle he fight. If e do not have the armed power ,then how will we counter the Landlord�s anger. Can his anger be countered by wagging our finger at him? Without armed power it is impossible to ensure peoples protection. If we do not have arms then no one will take our committee seriously. Each will do according to his will. They will think �What can they do to us.� When this power is their,they will fear.They know that if thy do not obey us the we have the power to destroy them. There will be lot of problems. We may even be killed During this period ,many have been matyred .Seeds are sown I he field in hope that they will grow. Similarly, with a dream of Socialism we are walking. The poesession of arms helped resolve some conflicts without actual resort to violence In Nyona village a wage issue was resolved peacefully because of the armed capacity of the organisation. A villager stated �Because we have arms ,the zamindars have shrunk with fear. Also gangs of bandits and dacoits ,who used to lot peole�s houses ,have been vanquished. Because of the atrocities ,the people used to feel very insecure. This has come to an end. I am quoting another passage fro Bela Bhatia’sinterview. A senior memer of the M.K S S stated: In 1979 there was an atmosphere of terror in the villages due to the feudal forces and criminal gangs.Even though he labourers had heard about us they we too scared to call us. However we were able to establish contact with few members of he J.P Movement,and asked him to arrange a meeting with few labourers introducing us as individuals who belonged to a party of the poor.On the agreed day we met at midnight In the fields. Instead of meeting a small group we met about 50 men.They were armed with lathis ,bhals and gadasas. The terrorized villagers explained that they would have taken the activists to the village but it was too risky.The �Maliks� had warned them that they would be severely punished if they brought he naxalites to the village..We activisists,emphasized the issues of izzat,wages,land abd basic democratic rights,but explained that it could only be done by our own strength. The People understood this stating, �We have understood .You are Naxalites,you talk about strength.� People now started coming in large numbrs.At first they were hesitant to speak out. Finally one of them spoke out,�We will now be coming to the meeting,expecting each time to get arms.If you are demanding confrontation and armed revolution,should you not provide us with arms.�Thus ,I actual fact, they were demanding arms.� Such incidents show the mass approach of the M.K S.S Miltary actions by Party Unity. This year is 20 years since the group held it�s conference. At the Party Congress held in 1987 the COC, CPI (ML) Party Unity outlined the following tasks : “We are tackling the steadily increasing armed onslaughts of the state, through mass resistance. But gradually the squads too will have to come forward to participate in this resistance. At the phase of confiscating all lands of the landlords and on the eve of building up the guerilla zone, the activities of the squads will be the main aspect of the people�s resistance against the armed attacks of the state.” The organisiation led significant struggles in Jehenabad region. and launched some significant armed actions. Several Comrades were martyred. In the Indo region of Masaudhi,on 23rd April 6 commandes of a squad were martyred. Comrades Lalit Manjhi, Brind Paswan Lakahn, LalBihari, Surendra Ravidas, Ramprasad Yadav and Chenga Manjhi were martyred.All of the were under 18 years of age. In Indo the Police colluded with the Ranbir Sena and staged their camps. They used landlord senas.To combat he landlord gangs the Party Unity squad on 1st February retaliayed and punished the goonda elements o February 1st 1997. Report from 1996 Journal of “Party Unity” In Malabar village of Palamau region in Vishrampur Thana the P.U squad carried out an action on 3 Jawans .A huge battle too place between the armed squad and the police.The squad eventually seized the rifles from he police.The Malabar region and it�s surrounding areas has a history of police �landlord repression .The Sunlight Sena was very active in this part. In 1991 a Police Camp was staged in this region.The Party Unity squad did creditable work in isolating the Sunlight Serna gangs ,A little after the Malabar encounter ,police repression began in Palamau. In Murumdag village in Chatarpur Thana 6 Comrades of Party Unity fell.Later 2 more members were assassinated. In Rohats district 2 further comrades wee mowed down. Malabar region was chosen as it was the birthplace of the Sunlight Sena.From here the Sunligt Sena spread to Aurangabad,,Hazirabag and Chatra.Major repression was launched o the peole of Malabar on 4th June 1991.By 1994,this spread to Belahar,. The organization made a self-critical analysis of their action.Their goal was to seize arms As result of incorrect tactical operation 2 comrades were sacrificed in it�s view.. The organsiation resolved 1.All repressin on the peasnt movement be stopped. 2.The Police force must stop protecting the Sunlight Sena. 3.All police camps should be withdrawn from districts. 4.To lift the ban on revolutionary organsiatins 5.The killers of he omrades in Chatarpur and Rohats should be unished 6.To compensate all he families whose memberswee killed in Malabar,Belhar,Pandipur, and neighbouring areas.All hose esponsible for the killings should be punished. Work was alos done to establisg uerilla Zones I the Koyal-Kemur Zone. The Party did lot of work promoting the slogan of �boycottting the election.�In 1996 a major campaign was carried out on the commemorating day of the Arwal massacre in 1996 in Gaya A big cultural programme was
  4. hegemonik said

    Very dramatic stuff happened in today’s round of fighting.

    1) The adivasis’ roadblocks significantly slowed the assault.

    2) The CPI (Maoist) forces held their own on the second day in a neighboring town.

    3) The dark cloud over the horizon is the possiblity of a full-on assault that would take place by air.

  5. Paul said


    I don’t think CPI(Maoist) has got any illusions about Trinamul Congress. They are trying to expose Mamata’s real face to the people and at the same time trying to counter CPI(Marxist) who is propagating that Maoists and Mamatha are hand-in-hand in Lalgarh. Please refer to the maoist leader’s press statement that Mamatha and CPM are two faces of the same coin.


    Do you think people can forget the history that it was the CPI(Marxist) government in West Bengal that killed thousands of Naxalites in fake ‘encounters’ during late 60’s and early 70’s ?

    It is high time for those who are genuine in the cadre of CPI(Marxist) in West Bengal and elsewhere to realise what their party has done to the poor during their 30 years of rule, except inviting World Bank, IMF, Tatas, Salems, Swarj Pauls and so on? Nandigram and Singur are examples of CPM’s ruthlessness in killing the people in the name of SEZs and Noe-liberalisation.

  6. sri said

    I am sorry but I don’t know of CPI(M) ruling WB on its own or as a part of left front before 1977, apart from being part of a UF govt for 1 year between late 1967 & 1972, during which period WB was mostly under President’s rule. On the other hand, S S Ray, who was the CM between early 1972 & 1977, took a “good care” of the naxalites which his younger brothers and sisters, including Mamatadidi, would continue. Talking of ruthlessness, going by the body counts reported in the press, it is the CPM leaders & cadre who bore most of the brunt. What kind of communism are they trying to build by inciting tribals against working class people & peasants belonging to other communities and murdering them?

  7. hegemonik said

    Here is how much the CPI(Marxist) cares for the adivasis of Lalgarh: they haven’t counted them in 32 years.

    “Incitement” of the adivasis is unnecessary when at least 1 million languish there while the CPI(Marxist)’s leaders are too busy constructing lavish headquarters and personal homes.

  8. redflag said

    Kindly make an effort to provide regular updates on Lalgarh issue. There is growing confusion that some reactionaries are trying to take advantage of. They are claiming that the Maoists have only spoiled the good efforts of the Adivasis – creating a split. This is dangerous propaganda that you should take effort to quash with timely updates.

  9. CPSA said

    Since you guys haven’t yet posted an article on this (rather ominous) development, here’s the latest on New Delhi’s ban on the CPI Maoist.

    Even the Left Front thinks this is politically useless and likely to be ineffective, from their reformist viewpoint. There are several related articles on the Hindu’s website, which I’d encourage people to look at. It’d be nice Delhi actually acted on the advice that most non-security officials (and many security ones too) of “combatting” Maoist armed rebellions via developmental policies, as opposed to law and order-oriented, and now increasingly military-oriented, ones. But the emphasis on the former has always mainly been discursive, and it appears the velvet glove is coming off the iron fist at a national level, not just a regional one. Unfortunately, I fear the Indian state is simply too strong in the medium-long run for the armed Maoist rebellion. But the “wars” are going to be very costly, especially for the country’s lower class and caste and adivasi populations.

  10. n3wday said

    thanks CPSA, we will be publishing an article on this issue very soon.

    please continue commenting with links to any interesting updates. i’ve been a bit slack over the past couple of days, i will rectify this issue.

  11. sri said

    So Abhijit Mahato and his friends, Anil Mahato and Niladhar Mahato, were killed because they were living in “lavish personal homes”.
    According to The Hindu, the only son of his widowed mother, and one of five children, Abhijit Mahato was the first member of his extended family to succeed in gaining admission to a college degree. “I cannot understand”, Abhijit’s mother Savita Mahato says, “what kinds of people would kill a boy who did them not the slightest harm”. I cannot, either. You may have other explanations like personal vendetta or criminal political intent, but not in the name of communism. But what one can easily understand is that present day “maoists” in Bengal are mostly erstwhile Trinamool cadre who want to capture power by killing & terrorising CPM cadre. So much for an ideological commitment towards Marxism for a communist hating lifelong Congress person from a Congress/Trinamool family becoming a gun-wielding “Maoist” leader with a license to kill.
    Communist revolution is evolutionarily an advanced process which replaces capitalism and, also, all precapitalist social structures. It cannot be based on atavistic behaviour and savagery. We have seen the Pol Pot’s regime and what it has done to its own people.

  12. Paul said

    You have mentioned in your last paragraph, “Communist revolution is evolutionarily an advanced process which replaces capitalism and, also, all precapitalist social structures”. Fine, now could you please tell us at what stage CPI(Marxist) is in the ‘evolutionary’ process of the ‘revolution’? Please do not say that they are still waiting for the ‘revolutionary situation’ to arrive in India and that people are not yet ready for the revolution. For the past 40 years CPI(Marxist) has been saying that they would bring communism in India and liberate all the working class people and landless peasants from exploitation of the capitalist and landlord class. Their philosophy is to achieve communism by fighting for seats in the assemblies and the Parliament.

    Are you too saying that CPI(Marxist) is preparing the people for the ‘revolution but in the mean while during 30 years of rule their ‘left front’ government in West Bengal has brought tremendous development by inviting American controlled World Bank and IMF as part of their anti-imperialist strategy and encouraging industries of big businesses like Tatas, Salems, Swarj Pauls as part of their strategy to eradicate poverty.

    For a while let us conveniently forget about Nandigram and Singur, where CPI(Marxist) and their police took the side of big capitalists and bulldozed people from their lands and houses.

  13. sri said

    Did I tell you that CPM is staging a revolution? Is that the point I made? Thank you for your understanding & comments.

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